do tertiary alcohols react with sodium levels

The OH Group

Carboxylic acids and phenols react with NaOH (aq) to form their sodium salts Alcohols react with neither NaOH (aq) nor any of the carbonates Oxidation of Alcohols Primary alcohols can be oxidised to make aldehydes which can then be oxidised to carboxylic acids Secondary alcohols are oxidised to ketones Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidised

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LiAlH4 and NaBH4 Carbonyl Reduction

Alcohols can be prepared from carbonyl compounds such as aldehydes The sodium ion is a weaker Lewis acid than the lithium ion and in this case the hydrogen bonding between the alcohol and the carbonyl group serves as a catalysis to activate the carbonyl group: Because NaBH 4 is not very reactive it is not strong enough to react with esters And this also has to do

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Reactions of Alcohols

Secondary and tertiary alcohols react via the S N 1 mechanism with the Lucas reagent The ZnCl 2 coordinates to the hydroxyl oxygen and this generates a far superior leaving group Primary alcohols react in a similar fashion except the free cation is not generated and the substitution is of S N 2 type Ch11 Reacns of Alcohols (landscape) doc Page 12 Limitations of

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alcohols

Reactions of Alcohols Salts (alkoxides) are formed by reaction of alcohol with alkali metal or alkaline earth metals: 1 With sodium: the alcohols give up a proton and in this capacity they behave as an acid forming a salt-sodium alkoxide 2 Alcohols will react with even weaker acids: e g NH 2- H-3 Oxidation to form the C=O group:

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The properties of alcohols

These experiments show that alcohols react similarly in all these reactions They make clear the concept of functional group in organic chemistry The –OH functional group behaves in the same way whether it is attached to C 2 H 5 or C 3 H 7 Further oxidation turns primary alcohols into acids while secondary alcohols are only oxidised to ketones under these conditions However tertiary

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6

tertiary alcohols will react readily with the Lucas reagent Secondary alcohols will react slowly (usually in 5-10 minutes) Primary alcohols will not react much at all since a primary carbocation is so unstable The chlorinated product is usually insoluble in water (the solvent in this reaction) whereas the initial alcohol is usually soluble in water because of its –OH group Cloudiness

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JONES REAGENT OXIDATION REACTIONS

* The Jones reagent is a mixture of chromic anhydride and dilute sulfuric acid (CrO 3 + H 2 SO 4 + H 2 O) in acetone It is used in the oxidation of secondary alcohols that do not contain acid sensitive groups to corresponding ketones * The primary alcohols are initially oxidized to aldehydes which are finally oxidized to carboxylic acids * A mixture of sodium dichromate or

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Synthesis and Structure of Alcohols

Synthesis and Structure of Alcohols Alcohols can be considered organic analogues of water Alcohols are usually classified as primary secondary and tertiary Alcohols with the hydroxyl bound directly to an aromatic (benzene) ring are called phenols Ch10 Alcohols Struct + synth (landscape) docx Page 2 Nomenclature of Alcohols Normally any compound's name which ends in –ol is an alcohol

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Identification of Primary Secondary and Tertiary

A simple method is presented that enables students to distinguish in a few minutes between primary secondary and tertiary alkyl alcohols This method is based on peculiarities of absorption spectra in the near-UV region of alkyl nitrites the products of alcohol nitrosation This procedure consists of adding 1€"2 drops of alcohol to the acidified solution of NaNO2

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10 Reactions of Alcohols Ethers Epoxides Amines and

Reactions of Alcohols Ethers Epoxides Amines and Sulfur-Containing Compounds 10 Chemists search the world for plants and berries and the ocean for flora and fauna that might be used as the source of a lead compound for the development of a new drug In this chapter we will see how cocaine which is obtained from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca—a bush native to the

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why does tertiary alcohol react faster than secondary

15 08 2013The tertiary carbocation is most stable thus tertiary alcohols are most reactive for SN1 reactions In case of SN2 mechanism the reaction proceeds through a transition state and thus steric hindrance would make tertiary alcohols least reactive

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Alcohol

In chemistry alcohol is an organic compound that carries at least one hydroxyl functional group (−OH) bound to a saturated carbon atom The term alcohol originally referred to the primary alcohol ethanol (ethyl alcohol) which is used as a drug and is the main alcohol present in alcoholic beverages An important class of alcohols of which methanol and ethanol are the

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Synthesis and Structure of Alcohols

Synthesis and Structure of Alcohols Alcohols can be considered organic analogues of water Alcohols are usually classified as primary secondary and tertiary Alcohols with the hydroxyl bound directly to an aromatic (benzene) ring are called phenols Ch10 Alcohols Struct + synth (landscape) docx Page 2 Nomenclature of Alcohols Normally any compound's name which ends in –ol is an alcohol

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Tests for the functional groups (Theory) : Class 12

1 Sodium metal test Alcohols react with active metals like sodium and liberate hydrogen gas that can be observed in the form of effervescence 2 Ester test Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form fruity smelling compounds called esters The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid is called esterification and is catalysed by an

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Organic Chemistry

Alkoxide bases such as sodium ethoxide or potassium tert-butoxide Tertiary alcohols react the fastest because they have the most stable tertiary carbocation-like transition state in the second step A Mechanism for Dehydration of Primary Alcohols: An E2 Reaction Primary alcohols cannot undergo E1 dehydration because of the instability of the carbocation-like

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How to Tell the Difference Between Alcohol Alkene in

A so-called secondary alcohol attached to a carbon with two other carbons attached to it reacts more slowly producing a precipitate within five minutes or so And alkenes as well as primary alcohols wherein the alcohol group is attached to a carbon with only one other carbon bonded to it do not react This test is especially useful because it not only tells you whether you have an

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The OH Group

Carboxylic acids and phenols react with NaOH (aq) to form their sodium salts Alcohols react with neither NaOH (aq) nor any of the carbonates Oxidation of Alcohols Primary alcohols can be oxidised to make aldehydes which can then be oxidised to carboxylic acids Secondary alcohols are oxidised to ketones Tertiary alcohols cannot be oxidised

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Tests for the functional groups (Theory) : Class 12

1 Sodium metal test Alcohols react with active metals like sodium and liberate hydrogen gas that can be observed in the form of effervescence 2 Ester test Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form fruity smelling compounds called esters The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid is called esterification and is catalysed by an acid such as concentrated sulphuric acid

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Reactions of Alcohols : Dehydration and Oxidation Reactions

Acidified K 2 Cr 2 O 7 or acidified KMnO 4 react with tertiary alcohols to form a mixture of a ketone and a carboxylic acid each containing fewer number of carbon atoms than the original alcohols Dehydrogenation of alcohols with Cu The vapours of alcohols react with heated copper at 573 K to form different products depending on whether the alcohol is primary secondary or tertiary

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This Is What Happens When Your Sodium Levels Are Too

Performance suffers when sodium levels are too low As an athlete it can be tempting to avoid neglect electrolyte replacement and instead rely on sports drinks or water alone However this can lead to hyponatremia because neither option provides enough sodium to replace what is lost through sweating

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Reactions of Alcohols

Secondary and tertiary alcohols react via the S N 1 mechanism with the Lucas reagent The ZnCl 2 coordinates to the hydroxyl oxygen and this generates a far superior leaving group Primary alcohols react in a similar fashion except the free cation is not generated and the substitution is of S N 2 type Ch11 Reacns of Alcohols (landscape) docx Page 12 Limitations

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Tests for the functional groups (Theory) : Class 12

1 Sodium metal test Alcohols react with active metals like sodium and liberate hydrogen gas that can be observed in the form of effervescence 2 Ester test Alcohols react with carboxylic acids to form fruity smelling compounds called esters The reaction between alcohol and carboxylic acid is called esterification and is catalysed by an

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Shaken not stirred oxidation of alcohols with sodium

Sodium dichromate in aqueous sulfuric acid under rather vigorous conditions (high temperature and/or an aqueous strongly acidic environment) is used for a variety of oxidations including some primary alcohols to aldehydes 5 and secondary alcohols to ketones Acidic dichromate is not a generally useful reagent for the oxidation of primary alcohols Under the reaction condition

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